Suhudou Ni Lebigimsim (Peace & Development)

Profile of Tamale Metro

PROFILE OF TAMALE METROPOLITAN ASSEMBLY PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS LOCATION AND SIZE The Tamale Metropolitan Assembly was established by legislative instrument (L.I. 2068). At present, it is one of the six Metropolitan Assemblies in the country and the only Metropolis in the three Northern regions of Ghana namely: the Upper East, Upper West and Northern regions. Tamale is the District as well as the Regional capital of the Northern Region. The Tamale Metropolis is one of the 26 MMDA’s in the Northern Region. It is located in the central part of the Region and shares boundaries with the Sagnarigu District to the North-West, Mion District to the East, East Gonja to the South and Central Gonja to the South West. Tamale is strategically located in the Northern Region and by this strategic location, the Metropolis has a market potential for local goods from the agricultural and commercial sectors from the other districts in the region and the southern part of Ghana. By its location, the Metropolis stands to gain in trade from some neighbouring West African countries such as Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali and Togo. The Metropolis has a total estimated land size of 646.9sqkm (2010 PHC Report). Geographically, the Metropolis lies between latitude 9º16 and 9º 34 North and longitudes 0º 36 and 0º 57 west. There are a total of 116 communities in the Metropolis of which 41 (35%) are urban, 15 (13%) being peri-urban and 60 (52%) of them being rural in nature. The rural parts of Tamale are the areas where land for agricultural activities is available and serve as the food basket for the Metropolis. However these communities have inadequate basic social and economic infrastructure such as good roads, school blocks, hospitals, markets and recreational centers. TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE The Metropolis is generally flat with gentle undulating low relief. The altitude ranges from 400 to 800 ft. above sea level. The Metropolis is poorly endowed with water bodies. The only natural water systems are a few seasonal streams which have water during the rainy season and dry up during the dry season. All these streams have their headwaters from Tamale which is situated on a higher ground. Aside this, some artificial dams and dug-outs have been constructed either by communities or Non-Governmental Organisations in the Metropolis. Two of such dams are the Datoyili and water works dams. These dams and dug-outs serve as watering sources for animals as well as for domestic purposes. Despite this poor drainage situation, the Metropolis still has the potential for irrigation schemes. For instance the Pagazaa stream has a potential that could be irrigated for agricultural purposes. CLIMATE AND RAINFALL PATTERN The Metropolis experiences two main seasons during the year – the dry and the raining seasons. The dry season starts from late October to early May. Farming activities noted for this period are: harvesting of rice, cassava, Yam, drying of foodstuffs, preparation of farmlands and raising of yam mounds. This season is also noted for hunting and burning of bushes for game. Most fire disasters occur during this period. The temperature is also good for solar and wind energy. Dry harmattan winds from the Sahara are experienced during the months of November to February. The coldest nights in the year are experienced in the months of December, January and February, while the hottest nights are experienced in the months of March, April and May. The second season which is, the raining season, span from late May to early October. The annual average rainfall is 1200mm. It is characterized by inaccessibility of some parts of the Metropolis due to bad roads. This period is also associated with lean or food insecurity period (June to early August). Cultivation and sowing is done during this period. Late August begins harvesting of early groundnuts, yam and maize. Water The Metropolis enjoys frequent water supply from the Dalun and the Nawuni Water Treatment Plants. The main water system in the Metropolis is pipe borne water which is rationed and managed by the Ghana Water Company Limited in urban Tamale. Urban communities that have difficulty with water supply may have a problem with old pipe lines structure or those located on high land areas.The Ghana Water Company Limited supplies over 45,000 cubic meters daily. Sachet water firms have therefore taken advantage of this opportunity to establish plants to utilize this resource in the area which is also creating employment opportunities for the youth. Others water facilities are town water systems, mechanized bore holes and wells. Environment The Metropolis lies within the Savannah Woodland Region in the country. The trees in this part of the country are short scattered wood lots. Major tree types are the Dawadawa, Nim, Acacia, Mahogany, and Baobab among others. There are naturally grown tall grasses during the rainy season that are used to make the “Zanamat”, (a type of local mat for roofing and also for fencing) in the Metropolis. The making of the Zanamat by some farmers during the dry season reduces the rural migration levels of the youth from the rural areas to urban centers. The only important economic tree is the Shea tree which has gained international recognition. The picking, processing and marketing of the Sheanuts and shea butter has engaged thousands of households in the Metropolis. This activity has also contributed in employing the youthful population in the Metropolis thereby increasing household incomes and reducing poverty levels of the people. Cashew is also grown in the Metropolis. There are two main forest reserves in the central part of the Metropolis namely the Nyohini and Agric Forest Reserves; however, these are being encroached upon by private developers (restaurants, petty traders and other businesses). The Forestry Services Commission which has the oversight responsibility to ensure effective management of these reserves is saddled with the problem of personnel and financial resources to manage these areas. While these forest reserves are encroached upon and are being used for commercial activities, majority of the population use these areas as an open place for defecation thereby increasing basic sanitation hazards in the Metropolis. This phenomena calls for effective forest reserves management and the need for private investors to acquire these areas and ensure that economic activities are being implemented such as picnics and holiday inns in these areas. Soil The main soil types in the Metropolis are sandstone, gravel, mudstone and shale that have weathered into different soil grades. Due to seasonal erosion, soil types emanating from this phenomenon are sand, clay and laterite ochrosols. The availability of these soil types have contributed to rapid real estate development in the area where estate developers have resorted to the use of local building materials such as sea sand, gravel and clay. The clay can used for bricks and tiles in the housing industry. The availability of clay has engaged so many women in pottery. In the Rural parts of the Metropolis the soil type is sandy loam and it is suitable for growing crops such as millet, maize, guinea corn, groundnuts, yam, and beans. DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES The population of Tamale Metropolis, according to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, is 223,252 representing 9.4 percent of the region’s population. Males constitute 49.7 percent (111,109) and females represent 50.3 percent (112,143). The population of the Metropolis is estimated to be 270,135 in 2017. This implies that there are more females than males in the Metropolis. The proportion of the total population living in the urban areas is (80.8%) and that of the proportion living in rural areas is (19.2%), meaning that most of the people in the metropolis live in the urban as compare to the percentages of those living in the rural areas. The Tamale Metropolis is therefore the only Metropolis in the Region which is predominantly urban. This implies that the Metropolis could be a growth pole for the three northern regions attracting both population and economic development in the area. This is also a potential for labour (skilled, semi and unskilled) for industry. Age-dependency The age-dependency ratio is the ratio of persons in the “dependent” ages (those under age 15 and age 65 and older) to the working-age population (15 to 64 years). The age-dependency ratio is often used as an indicator of the economic burden the productive portion of the population must carry. Areas with very high birth rates usually have the highest age-dependency ratios because of the large proportion of children in the population. The higher this ratio is, the more people a potential worker is assumed to be supporting and the vice-versa. The dependency ratio for male in the Metropolis is 70.2, while that of female is 68.5 indicating that there are more male dependents than females in the Metropolis. In the rural area, the dependency ratio (86.5) is higher than the urban area (65.7) meaning that there is more dependent population in rural areas than the urban centers. Fertility Fertility refers to the number of live births a woman has ever given to in her life time. The analysis is based on the birth histories of women age 15-49. A measure of fertility is important in determining the size and structure of the population. Table 1.4 indicates the distribution of total fertility rate, general fertility rate and crude birth rate for the Northern Region. The fertility rate for the Tamale Metropolis is 2.8 children per woman age 15-49 years, and this is lower than the regional average of 3.54. This means that a woman in the age group 15-49 living in the Metropolis would have, on the average, 2.8 children by the end of her reproductive period age. . Housing and Household Size The housing stock of Tamale Metropolis is 19,387 representing 7.5 percent of the number of houses in Northern Region. There are a total of 35,408 households and the average household size is 6.3 persons per household, which is lower than the Regional average. There are four main types of dwelling units in the Metropolis. These are the separate isolated houses (Self Contained), the semi-detached houses, separate room (s) within a compound usually with common cooking and toilet facilities, and several huts or buildings within a common compound. These dwellings are identical of certain communities in the Metropolis. The self-contained buildings are associated with the professional class of teachers, nurses and others in the banking and NGOs communities. Majority of the population are also living in what is termed the compound house structures where toilet, bath and kitchen structures are shared by two or more families within the compound. These are largely privately constructed for renting to the general population. The Metropolis currently has a deficit in the housing stock because of government’s inability to provide affordable houses. The individual private landlords therefore take this advantage to extract huge monies from tenants. There is a high market for real affordable housing units for the high population in the formal sector. There is therefore the need for government and private sector intervention in the provision of housing units to meet the demand of the growing population. The huts roofed with thatch buildings are commonly used in the rural communities in the Metropolis. . . 1.3.4 Socio-Cultural Characteristics Religious Affiliation Majority (90.5%) of the population in Tamale Metropolis is Muslim and followed by Christians. About (0.2%) has no religious affiliation. Among the Christians, the Catholics have the highest proportion of 3.0 percent; follow by Pentecostal/Charismatic (2.4%) and Protestants (2.4%). The proportion of traditionalist in the Metropolis is (0.3%). The are a number of religious leaders who apart from spreading the message of Islam work to educate people on moral uprightness. Notable places of Islamic propagation include the Central mosque and the Ambariya mosques. Ethnicity The Metropolis is occupied by diverse ethnic and tribal groups with dagombas being the traditional occupants of this area. More than 80% of the people living in the Metropolis are dagombas. Other tribal grops include the Gonja, Mamprusi, Nanumba, Konkomba, Asantes, Ewes, Hausa and some other minorities. This composition is important for inter tribal cooperation which is required for peace and development in the Metropolis. Traditional Administration The Metropolis is being administered by a number of key traditional rulers including the Dakpema, the Gulkpe naa, the Lamashe naa and the Banvim lana. Other sub-chiefs together with some opinion leaders support the traditional administration in the Metropolis. 1.3.5 Occupation The occupation with the highest population in the Metropolis is service and sales workers (33.0%). This is followed by those in the craft and related trades workers (21.5%). The proportion of the employed persons engaged in skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery is (17.6%). There are more males compare to females in almost all the occupations with the exception of service and sales (16.5%) for males and a large proportion (50.3%) for females. Also there are more females (11.3%) than males (6.1%) in the elementary occupations. Industry Wholesale and retail; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles has the highest employed population (33.4%) with (22.1%) being male and (45.4%) female. Agriculture, forestry and fishing workers are the next major occupation in the Metropolis with a proportion of 18.2 percent of both sexes and with (24.4%) males and (11.8%) female. The next occupation that follows is manufacturing (12.5%), employing (12.1%) males and (12.9%) females. Wholesale, agriculture and retail and manufacturing account for 64.1 percent of the industrial base of the Metropolis. Employment Sector Employment sector refers to the sector in which a person works. The sectors covered in the census were public, private informal, private formal, semi-public/parastatal, NGOs and International organizations. Out of the total employed population of 83,229 persons, 11.3 percent are in public (government) sector while 83.2 percent are in private informal sector. A few persons are in NGOs (local and international) constituting 0.5 per cent. In the private informal sector, 76.5 per cent are males while 90.2 percent are females. Semi-public/parastatal has a negligible percentage of 0.1. Market facilities There are five functional markets in the Metropolis namely: the Tamale Central Market, Aboabo, Kalpohini, Kukuo and Lamashegu markets. There are however other satellite markets in other communities. While the Central market is currently occupied with mini shops and stalls, efforts are being made to upgrade the market with modern facilities and more stores, to be able to meet the demands of the informal sectors. The Assembly would then be in a position to make the needed revenue for development. ` The Central Business District (CBD) is also fast developing with the springing up of modern super market activities. There is however an uncompleted modern super market block that was under construction during the 1970s but has been abandoned due to lack of financial resources. This facility when completed would provide space for offices, stores and shopping space for businesses. This would also assist in taking most of the traders off the street and other open spaces in the CBD area of the Metropolis. Fortunately, Government of Ghana has provided funds this year for the completion of this market by the end of 2015. Other structures would be constructed as part of this project to provide more stores for the traders. Figure 1.22 Abandoned Tamale Super Market at Aboabo Sanitation The Assembly has an abattoir located at Shishegu. This abattoir has the capacity of generating waste for bio-gas. Aside this facility is the landfill side that collects over 250 tons of waste daily. A digester and a recycling plant would be a solution to utilize this waste for economic gains within the Metropolis and other neighbouring districts in the region. The Abattoir has been put for rehabilitation under the Ghana Urban Management Pilot Project with funding from the French Agency for International Development (AfD). There is also a landfill site at Gbalahi which is a huge potential for the generation of not only bio-gas but also for generation of fertilizer which could be very useful to farmers. The landfill as at now is poorly developed, the consequences of which could be devastating in the future especially on the health of the people. To stem any future health problems, any system of converting the waste into usable products could have helped improve on the lives of the people as well as provide employment opportunity for some of the residents. 1.3.6 UTILITIES AND SERVICES The Metropolis is endowed with basic utilities and services. Electricity, water, roads, markets, retail services, both private and public banking institutions and communication services are available in urban communities in the Metropolis. However; more needs to be done in the rural communities. Roads The roads in the Metropolis are fairly good especially those that link the Metropolis to other district capitals. The tarred roads in the area facilitate easy commuting from one place to the other. There is no traffic congestion. Most of the farming and the Peri-urban communities are linked to the marketing centers by feeder roads. The availability of access roads linking farming communities is an incentive to the farmers since post harvest loses is reduced. Although most of the roads are tarred, some linking the regional capital to the remotest of areas are yet to be tarred. Others have been graveled but yet to be tarred. Transport The major transport services in the area are taxi cabs with a main taxi station at the Central Business District (CBD). There is also an enormous usage of motorbikes within the metropolis which is the main source of affordable transport for both males and females. State Transport Company, Metro Mass Transit, OA Transport and other private bus services link the Metropolis with other cities and towns in the country. For easy transport of goods and services, EMS, FEDEX, DHL and others that offer fast and reliable express services from the Metropolis to other places. There is a National Airport located at Mile 9. Major airlines such as Antrak Air, Ghana Air Force and City Link offer air services to customers in and around the Northern part of the country. The presence of air transport has an advantage for business men and women who would be trading in perishable goods. Communication The TaMA also enjoys telecommunication services with an increase in telecommunication service providers such as Kasapa now operating as Expresso, Tigo Zain, Vodafone, and MTN in addition to a new network called GLO. RLG Limited has also sited their company in the metropolis which is serving as a source of employment for the youth. Broad band service in the Metropolis is also encouraging which links the Assembly to the worldwide web. This has ensured competitive service delivery in the area. Besides, business activities are done with partners on a faster schedule globally. Media activities are now vibrant with an increase of 3 to 6 radio stations, 1 to 4 television stations and newspaper supply vendors. The Media houses are avenues for organizing educative programmes especially on government policies in the illiterate population in the local languages. The major problem with the newspapers is that, they arrive in the Metropolis very late and as such the public can’t afford to read current news items. With technological advancement there would be the need for a newspaper printing press located in the Metropolis to serve the three Northern Regions of the country. The table below shows some communication and other service providers in the Metropolis. Table 1.16 COMMUNICATION SERVICES Communication Service Providers Radio Houses and their frequencies Television Stations Some Major Shops and Super Marts MTN Radio Savannah (91.2 MHz) Ghana Television (GTV) Melcom Vodafone Justice (98.5 MHz) Metropolitan Television (METRO TV) Somovision Tigo Filla (89.3MHz) TV Africa Modern City Airtel Diamond (93.7MHz) Viasat One Quality First Expresso North Star(92.1 MHz) Discovery TV Forsamuel GLO GH ONE Zubes RLG Zaar Radio TV 3 EKG Enterprise Ghana Post Bishara Radio DSTV/MULTI TV Channels Ofram DHL/EMS Nassam VENTURES Source: Metropolitan Planning Coordinating Unit (2010) Electricity The Metropolis enjoys electricity supply from the National Grid and about 80% of the communities are connected. Electricity supply has been fairly stable. This could be an advantage to heavy industrial development that would depend mostly on energy for production. With the expansion of electricity in the Metropolis, there is also an expansion of the Small and Medium Scale Enterprise businesses in the area. Sporting Activities There is an Ultra-modern Sports Stadium in the Metropolis which is being managed by the Ghana Sport Council. Figure 1.23 Picture of the Tamale Sport Stadium The Sport Stadium has contributed in boosting sporting activities in the Metropolis. Real Tamale United is the biggest football club in the Metropolis with other smaller clubs. There are other facilities such as conference rooms, restaurants and shops within the sport stadium for public use-workshops, conferences and meetings. The inner perimeter of the stadium could also be used for entertainment activities-musical displays and others. Tourism The Metropolis is a transit point to many tourist sites in other districts and regions in the northern part of Ghana. For instance, many tourists moving to the Mole National Park do make a stopover in Tamale before embarking on their trip to West Gonja district. However, there are some few tourist sites in the Metropolis namely: Tugu Crocodile Pond, the Python Sanctuary, the smock and art craft centre, the German Cemetery as well as a Cultural Centre. It is the hope of the Metropolis to collaborate with Ghana Tourist Board to develop these sites to boast tourism in the area. The Centre for National Culture is located right in the Central Business District of Tamale; a place many tourists would cherish visiting to have a look at many items of local Arts and Craft exhibitions. Below is a picture of an artefact shop at the Cultural Centre (Centre for National Centre) in Tamale. Figure 1.24 Adongo Art and Craft Shop Hospitality Industry There is also an increase in the activities in the hospitality industry. More hotels, guest houses, restaurants are springing up. The most prominent and efficient hotels, guest houses and restaurants in the Metropolis are identified in the table below. Table 1.17 LIST OF SOME HOSPITALITY INFRASTRUCTURE Some identified Hotels Some identified Guest Houses Some identified Restaurants Name Location and other details Name Location and other details Name Location and other details Relax Lodge Picorna Hotel Hamdala Hotel Hamdala Hotel Annex GETFund Hotel Las Hotel Mafara Hotel Radach Hotel Kalpohini Estates Aboabo Kukuo Kukuo Agric Dungu Changli Russian Bungalows Lamashegu Christian Council GH Pastoral Centre Jona Lodge Tuyumba Lodge Ackma GH Agric Lamashegu Kalpohini SSNIT area Vittin Mikes Africa Touch GIDIPASS Club Ernesta Big byte Gumani Junction Vitting CBD Jisonayili 1.3.7 DISABILITY Persons with disabilities (PWD) refers to people who are unable or who are restricted in the performance of specific tasks owing to the loss of some function or part of the body as a result of impairment or malformation (Ghana Statistical Service, 2010). Like all other Ghanaians, PWD have fundamental human rights and freedoms. Unfortunately, PWD in Ghana are often victims of discrimination and marginalization in areas such as education, employment, leadership and access to basic facilities and services. In Ghana, several laws and conventions, thus both national and international have been instituted or adopted to help address the problem of the marginalization of PWD. These include the 1992 constitution of Ghana, The Disability Act (Act 715 of 2006), the United Nations Convention on the rights of PWD and the African decade of the Disabled (GSS, 2010) Types of disability The various types of disability as captured in the 2010 Population and Housing Census include sight, hearing, and speech, physical, emotional and intellectual. Emotional disability is most dominant in the Metropolis accounting for 29.1 percent of the total population with disabilities, follow by sight with a proportion of 26.4 percent while physical disability accounts for 20.9 percent of the entire disability population in the Metropolis. Disability by type of locality Disability by type of locality examines the distribution of the population with disabilities across the rural-urban divide in the Metropolis; 2.1 percent of the urban population has disabilities as compare to 1.8 percent for the rural population. Emotional disability is rank highest with the proportion of 29.7 percent in the urban area while speech disability is rank lowest (12.3%). In the rural areas of the Metropolis, 1.8 percent of the total population is living with disabilities. Sight has the highest percentage among the disabilities in the rural area of the Metropolis accounts for 26.9 percent of the entire disability population. Like in the urban locality, speech is the least dominant form of disability in the rural area representing 12.3 percent of total disabilities. 1.3.8 AGRICULTURE Agriculture is an important sector of Ghana’s economy employing about 60.0 percent of the economically active population of the nation (GSS, 2010). The sector is critical to the national economy contributing 21.3 percent to the Gross domestic product (GDP) in 2013 (MOFEP, 2013). Households in Agriculture The 2010 PHCR revealed that more than half (56.3%) of the population in the urban areas are engage in agriculture whereas less than half (43.3%) of the population in the rural areas are also engage in agriculture. Types of farming activities The main types of farming activities considered in the 2010 population and housing census in Ghana are crop farming (excluding gardening), tree growing, livestock rearing, and fishing. Crop farming is most dominant in the Metropolis as a whole accounting for more than half (52.9%) of the population in the urban areas whiles less than half (43.3%) of them are also in the rural areas. and. Live stock rearing accounts for 49.8 percent and 50.2 percent of urban and rural households respectively. Fish farming is virtually nonexistent in the metropolis and this may be attributed to the lack of water bodies suitable for that purpose. There is more livestock rearing in the rural areas (50.2%) as compared to the urban areas (49.8%). Distribution of Livestock Livestock such as chicken, goat and sheep have large numbers of keepers but relatively small holdings. This perhaps explains the subsistence nature of farming in the Metropolis. The dove has the highest holding (28 per farmer) follows by cattle (26 per keeper). Beehives has the least holding (zero) which has no average keeper in the Metropolis. This implies that there is little or no bee keeping in the metropolis. Metropolitan Agricultural Development Unit (MADU) The Metropolitan Agricultural Development Unit (MADU) is a decentralized department under the Tamale Metropolitan Assembly. This department is under the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA). The department is located at Vittin in the Tamale South Sub-Metro and the Vittin Town Council in general. This department is tasked with responsibility of ensuring food self-sufficiency and the provision of services aimed at increasing agricultural productivity in the Tamale Metropolis. To achieve food self-sufficiency and increase productivity, MADU collaborates with several other governmental and non-governmental organizations especially the farmer population in the Metropolis. Since the department has the prime mandate to ensure food self-sufficiency and the provision of services aimed at increasing agricultural productivity in the Tamale Metropolis; the office works hand in hand with mostly farmers in the Metropolis. For the department to ensure effective monitoring and extension coverage, the Metropolis has been divided into operational zones. Metro Education Directorate (MED) The Metro Education Directorate (MED) is headed by the Metropolitan Director of Education. This Directorate has the oversight responsibility of providing relevant education to all humans living in the Metropolis and to develop their potential to be productive, facilitate poverty reduction and promote socio-economic growth and development. The MED aims at creating a system capable of meeting the pre-tertiary education needs of all children of school-going age irrespective of gender, ethnic, religion and political affiliation through teamwork and total pupil /student/teacher care. In line with the general mission of the GES, the MED has a vision to provide relevant Education, in collaboration Civil Society and other stakeholders in all spheres of life. All the public Basic Schools are distributed among educational circuits in the Metropolis. The school system is run in three terms in an academic year beginning August/September. There are a number of Circuit Supervisors who inspect, supervise and monitor teaching/ learning activities within that circuit. 1.3.9 Metropolitan Health Services Directorate (MHSD) The Health services in the Metropolis are managed at three (3) levels namely: Metro. Health Administration level, Sub-district level and the Community level. Metro. Health Administration At the administration level, the Metropolitan Health Management Team (MHMT) is responsible for overall planning, monitoring, supervision, evaluation, training, co-coordination of all health programmes in the Metropolis. It is also responsible for conducting operational research and linking up with other governmental agencies, Development partners and NGOs in health provision and promotion. The MHMT has the following units: Figure 1.25 Organogram of the MHSD The Metropolis is sub-demarcated into sub-districts each with a management team known as the Sub-district Health Management Team (SDHMT). The sub-districts are: • Builpela Sub-district • Tamale Central Sub-district • Vittin Sub-district The SDHMTs are responsible for programme planning and implementation of health activities in their various sub-districts, some of them include: Conduct integrated static and outreach activities such as immunization, reproductive health, disease control, growth monitoring, health education/promotion and clinical care Training and supervision of community based health workers such as traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Community Based Surveillance (CBS) volunteers, village Health Committees. Community level: Health services are provided at the community level by sub-districts staff supported by TBAs, CBS volunteers. 1.3.10 Governance The General Assembly of the Metropolis stands at a total of 62 members. Out of this number, 41 are elected, 18 appointed, 2 Members of Parliament and the Metropolitan Chief Executive. For effective implementation of policies in the Assembly, the General Assembly has the following Sub-Committees; the Development Planning Sub-Committee, Works Sub-Committee, Social Services Sub-Committee, Revenue Sub-Committee, Education Sub-Committee, Environment and Sanitation Sub-Committee, Finance and Administration Sub-Committee. Security matters are being handled by the Metropolitan Security Committee (METSEC) Local Governance Structure in the Metropolis Apart from the main Assembly, there are two sub-district councils; that is Tamale South and Central Sub district councils popularly called Sub-Metros that work to achieve development at the grassroots level. The main assignment of the Sub-Metro structures is to facilitate participatory decision making, community participation in project planning and implementation. They are also expected to design pragmatic ways of generating revenue for the Sub-Metro and the Assembly in general. Until recently, these sub-structures were not fully operational. The effective operationalization of the Sub-structures (sub-metros) started during the 1st quarter of 2010. The Sub-Metros have their offices at the following locations in the Metropolis: Tamale Central Sub-Metro is at Kaladan, off Aboabo-Nyohini road, Tamale South Sub-Metro is at Banvim off Lamashegu-Vittin ring road. There are eminent traditional chiefs and sub-chiefs who are also working hard in the area of promoting peace, stability and development. Also supporting local development efforts at that level are the Assembly members, NGOs, Women groups and other identifiable groups. ? Table 1.18 DECENTRALIZED DEPARTMENTS OF THE ASSEMBLY No. Department No. Department 1 Central Administration 9 Physical Planning 2 Finance 10 Social Welfare and Community Development 3 Education, Youth and Sports 11 Natural Resources Conservation, Forestry and Wildlife 4 Health 12 Transport 5 Works 13 Urban Roads 6 Trade and Industry 14 Waste Management 7 Disaster Prevention and Management 15 Budgeting and Rating 8 Agriculture 16 Legal Table 1.19 DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES/PROJECTS IN THE METROPOLIS Programme/Project Area of Focus Collaborators Source of Fund District Assemblies Common Fund Provision of School infrastructure, Health facilities, Support for the Disabled, Needy students, street lighting, Sanitation etc) DACF, MLGRD Departments of the Assembly, Assembly members, Traditional rulers, schools, health facilities GOG District Development Facility Provision of School infrastructure, Health facilities, street lighting, Capacity Building, Sanitation etc) MLGRD, CIDA, other DPs, Departments of the Assembly, Assembly members, Traditional rulers, schools, health facilities GOG, CIDA, other DPs Local Government Capacity Support Project Provision of School infrastructure, Health facilities, street lighting, Capacity Building, Markets, Sanitation etc) MLGRD, MoF, the World Bank Departments of the Assembly, Assembly members, Traditional rulers, schools, health facilities, Markets Associations The World Bank Resiliency in Northern Ghana Project *Livelihoods (Agriculture and Savings), Health (Nutrition and WASH), and Good Governance (Implementation through DAs and Capacity Building through planning and logistics). * The target population for this project is vulnerable households with women of reproductive age and children under five. * The goal of this project is to reduce poverty while improving the nutritional status among vulnerable households (those listed above, with than five years of age). USAID, MLGRD, Departments of the Assembly, Assembly members, Traditional rulers, schools, health facilities USAID Sustainable Rural Water and Sanitation Project Water and Sanitation, Hygiene promotion MLGRD, the World Bank, Departments of the Assembly, Assembly members, Traditional rulers, schools, health facilities The World Bank 1.3.11 Non Governmental Organisations The development of the Metropolis is a concern to others such as Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs), Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), other Development partners and the Private Sector. There are a number of NGOs in the Metropolis. Some of these organizations operate in rural communities in the Metropolis while others have their offices here and operate in other districts in the Region. Many of them are in the area of Good governance, Agric and food security, Human rights, Water and Sanitation. Below is a table showing some of the NGOs in the Metropolis and their areas of operation. Table 1.20 LISTS OF SOME NGOs Name of Organisation Operational Area Program Action Aid Tamale and other districts in the Region Research, advocacy, gender and education. ACDEP Tamale and other districts in the Region Advocacy, agric, capacity building, health and research. Basic Needs Tamale and other districts in the Region Health, research, water and sanitation. Catholic Relief Service (CRS) Tamale and other districts in the Region Research, advocacy, education, food security and health. Girls Growth and Development (GIGDEV) Tamale and other districts in the Region Textile designing, Printing, Soap making, Dressmaking, Hairdressing, Family Life Education, HIV/AIDS, Agro-Forestry Centre for Active Learning and Integrated Development (CALID) Tamale and other districts in the Region Food security, Education, Institutional capacity building IBIS- Ghana Tamale and other districts in the Region Education, governance and advocacy. Send-Ghana Tamale and other districts in the Region Advocacy, micro credit, water and sanitation. SNV-Netherland development programme Tamale and other districts in the Region Capacity building and networking. Northern Network for Education Development Tamale and other districts in the Region Education, research and advocacy. Ghana Network for Peace Building Tamale and other districts in the Region Peace building ISODEC Tamale and other districts in the Region Health, Env’t Issues Income, generating, Gender Issues and Budget Advocacy and research Northern Ghana Network for Development New Energy Tamale Energy, Sanitation and Education Wunzaligu Development Association Behisung Integrated Development Organisation Source: Northern Ghana Network for Development, Tamale 2013 1.4 Development Issues Data collected from communities, secondary data and an analysis of issues from a performance review of the implementation of the 2010-2013 Medium Term Development plan indicates that the Tamale Metropolitan Assembly is still challenged by the following social and economic factors. Table 1.21 DEVELOPMENT ISSUES IN THE METROPOLIS Thematic Areas Thematic Area 6: Human Development , Productivity and Employment Sector Developmental Issues Education 1 Poor performance especially at the BECE level 2 Poor performance of several public schools as compared to private school 3 Inadequate funding for education sector 4 Insufficient school structures and logistics 5 Dilapidated schools and furniture 6 Ineffective monitoring and supervision 7 Low teacher motivation 8 Absenteeism of teachers in schools 9 Irregular attendance to schools and classes by some children especially in distant communities 10 Indiscipline among some students and some pupils 11 Indiscipline among some teachers Health 1. Persistent high incidence of Malaria 2. Inadequate health clinics 3. Poor conditions of CHPS compounds 4. Poor conditions of some health facilities 5. Inadequate health staff in facilities 6. Inaccessibility to health care by sections of the populace Waste Management 1 Littering of plastic waste and other light materials 2 Inadequate equipment for waste management 3 Community apathy to waste management 4 Building houses without toilet facilities 5 Several public toilets without fence walls 6 Secret dumping of faecal material and other waste in drains and in open spaces(shit ‘bombs’) 7 Open defecation (free range) by both adults and children 7. Inadequate refuse containers in markets 8. Close proximity of some public toilets to residential houses 9. Indiscriminate dumping of refuse/rubbish 10. Choked gutters 11. Refuse’ mountains’ 12. Non disinfection of gutters Thematic Area 3: Accelerated Agriculture Modernization and Sustainable Natural Resource management Agricultural Development 1 Inadequate Agric Extension Staff and Service provision 2 Inadequate farm machinery and high cost of mechanization services 3 Diminishing farm land due to real Estate development 4 Inadequate and late release of logistics (inputs, funds, vehicles) 5 Inadequate irrigation facilities to supplement rain-fed agriculture 6 Inadequate markets for agricultural products 7 Low use of certified seeds 8 High cost of farm inputs 9 Misuse of agro chemicals 10 Erratic rainfall 13. Silting of dams 14. Lack of irrigation dams in communities 15. Bush fires and pests Thematic Area 2: Enhancing Competitiveness in Ghana’s Private Sector Local Economy 1 Inadequate data/information on Local Economic Enterprises 2 Little support given for informal sector development 3 Informal sector businesses poorly organised 4 Inadequate market centres 5 Little marketing opportunities open to the informal sector 16. Lack of Electricity in some communities 17. Limited credit facilities to women 18. Lack of job opportunities for the youth Reducing Poverty and Income inequalities 1 High incidence of poverty among food crop farmers 2 Low female involvement in economic decision making 3 Limited access to micro credit 4 Low level of employment opportunities 5 Youth unemployment 6 Lack of irrigation dams and facilities 7 High cost of agric inputs 8 Limited coverage of the school feeding programme 9 Bad roads/foot bridges to farms and marketing centres Thematic Area 7: Transparent and Accountable Governance NGOs, CSOs and PPP Collaboration 1 Inadequate collaboration in the delivering of development projects 2 Limited funding in the face of high demand for development projects 3 High illiteracy/ignorance of communities about the Assembly’s concept 4 Low local level participation and ownership of projects (problem of sustainability) Metropolitan Assembly 1 Weak enforcement of development control regulations 2 Inadequate revenue and development funds 3 Inadequate logistics for revenue mobilization 4 Ineffective monitoring of revenue collectors 5 Ineffective project monitoring and evaluation 6 Poor sanitation facilities in the Assembly 7 Poor implementation of sub-committees reports Thematic Area 5: Infrastructure, Energy and Human Settlements Roads Infrastructure 1.Over speeding of vehicles on roads 2.Bad roads 3.Pot holes in roads 4. Choked gutters 8.Infested gutters 9.Lack of roads/foot bridges to some communities and farms/markets Market Infrastructure 1 Few taxi stations 2 Exposure of traders to market toilets 3 Dilapidated markets 4 Lack of markets in some communities 1. Pipe-borne water not connected to markets 2. Markets without security lights 3. Lack of or few refuse containers in markets 4. Insecurity in markets 5. Faulty street lights Electricity 1. Electricity not extended to some communities 2. Lack of street lights along some streets 3. Ineffective maintenance of existing street lights 4. Unannounced/frequent power outages and destruction to properties Water and Sanitation 1 Poor sanitary facilities in the Assembly’s 2 Lack of potable water in some communities 3 Inadequate water supply in urban and peri-urban Tamale due to rationing particularly in dry the season 4 Contamination due to poor storage facilities and household water management 5 Unsustained water and sanitation management sensitisation campaigns Telecommunication 1 Limited telecommunication network coverage 2 Network connectivity problems

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